Commissioned, Published by Seoul Metropolitan City, Hard Cover, 174 page, 149 plate




์ž‘์—…๋…ธํŠธ <์•„์นด์ด๋ธŒ:๊ธฐ๊ณ„, ์ž๋™์ฐจ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋„์‹œ>


๋„์‹œ๋Š” ๋ณ€ํ™”ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ƒ์„ฑ๊ณผ ์†Œ๋ฉธ์€ ๋„์‹œ๋ผ ํ•ด๋„ ๋น„๊ปด๊ฐˆ ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋Š” ์šด๋ช…์ด์ง€๋งŒ ๋„ˆ๋ฌด ๋นจ๋ฆฌ ๋ณ€ํ™”ํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด, ๊ธˆ์„ธ ์‚ฌ๋ผ์ ธ ๋ฒ„๋ฆฐ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ๋ฌธ์ œ๋‹ค. 40๋…„๊ฐ„ ์ค‘๊ณ  ์ž๋™์ฐจ์˜ ๋ฉ”์นด์˜€๋˜ ์ด๊ณณ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰๋„ ํ”์  ์—†์ด ์‚ฌ๋ผ์งˆ๊นŒ ๋ด ๋‘๋ ค์› ๋‹ค. ์šฐ์—ฐํ•œ ๊ธฐํšŒ์— ์„œ์šธ์‹œ์˜ ๋„์›€์œผ๋กœ ์ด๊ณณ์„ ์‚ฌ์ง„์œผ๋กœ ๊ธฐ๋กํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์ค‘๊ณ ์ฐจ ๋งค๋งค์ƒ๊ฐ€๋Š” ํ•œ๊ตญ ์ค‘๊ณ ์ฐจ ์‹œ์žฅ์˜ ์‚ฐ์ฆ์ธ์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ˆ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐ€๋“ ์ฑ„์šด ๊ฐ€๋ฐฉ์„ ๋ฉ˜ ์†๋‹˜๋“ค์ด ์ค„์„ ์„œ์„œ ๊ธฐ๋‹ค๋ ธ๋‹ค๋˜, ์ง์›์ด ์ˆ˜์‹ญ ๋ช…์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค๋˜ ์‚ฌ์žฅ๋‹˜์˜ ํ™”๋ คํ•œ ์˜› ์ถ”์–ต์€ ์‚ฌ๋ฌด์‹ค์˜ ๊ธˆ๋น› ์ƒ์žฅ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ์•ก์ž ์•ˆ์— ๋ฐ•์ œ๋œ ์ฑ„ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ์˜ ์˜๊ด‘์ด ๋˜์–ด๋ฒ„๋ ธ๋‹ค. ๋ชฉ์ฒญ ๋†’์ธ ํ˜ธ๊ฐ๊พผ ์•„์ €์”จ๋„, ๋ฐœ ๋””๋”œ ํ‹ˆ ์—†๋˜ ์ง€ํ•˜ ์‹๋‹น๊ฐ€์˜ ์ฃผ์ธ์•„์ฃผ๋จธ๋‹ˆ๋„ ์ด์ œ๋Š” ๋‚˜์ด๊ฐ€ ๋“ค์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์ง€ํ•˜ ๊ตฌ์„์—” ๊ณ ์–‘์ด๋“ค์ด ๊ธด ํ•˜ํ’ˆ์„ ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค.

์ค‘๊ณ ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ๊ฑธ์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ฐ€์žฅ ๋จผ์ € ๋ˆˆ์— ๋„๋Š” ๊ฑด ์ค‘๊ณ ์ฐจ์˜ ๋ถ€์†ํ’ˆ์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์œก์ค‘ํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ธฐ๋ฆ„๋•Œ ๋ฌป์€ ๋ฉ์–ด๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๋งˆ์น˜ ์ธ์ฒด์˜ ๋“œ๋Ÿฌ๋‚œ ์žฅ๊ธฐ ๊ฐ™์•„ ๋ณด์˜€๋‹ค. ๊ธฐ๊ณ„๊ณต๋“ค์€ ๋ฉ”์Šค๋ฅผ ๋“  ์˜์‚ฌ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๊ธฐ๊ณ„๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜์ˆ ํ•˜๋Š” ๋“ฏํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ˆ˜๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ๋งˆ์น˜๊ณ  ํšŒ์ƒํ•œ ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ๋“ค์€ ์ฃผ๋ณ€ ๊ณต๊ฐ„ ์•ˆ์— ์ ์ ˆํžˆ, ์˜ค๋žœ ์‹œ๊ฐ„ ๊ณต๋“ค์ธ ๋Œํƒ‘์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ์Œ“์—ฌ๊ฐ”๋‹ค.

๋ถ€ํ’ˆ์ƒ๊ฐ€ ์•ž์—์„œ๋Š” ํƒ๋ฐฐ์ฐจ์™€ ์˜คํ† ๋ฐ”์ด๊ฐ€ ์‰ด ํ‹ˆ ์—†์ด ์›€์ง์ธ๋‹ค. ๋ฐ•์Šค๊ฐ€ ๊ณณ๊ณณ์— ์Œ“์—ฌ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ์„ ์ˆ˜์ž…ํ•ด๊ฐ€๋ ค๋Š” ์•„๋ž์ธ๋“ค๊ณผ ์•„ํ”„๋ฆฌ์นด ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค๋„ ๋ณด์ธ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ ๊ฐ€์šด๋ฐ ํ•˜๋Š˜์„ ํ’ˆ์€ ์ค‘์ •์ด ๋‹๋ณด์ด๋Š” ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ์ƒ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ์ƒ๊ฐ€๋ฅผ ๋‘˜๋Ÿฌ์‹ธ๊ณ  ๋ณ‘ํ’์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ์œ ๋ช… ๊ฑด์„ค์‚ฌ ์•„ํŒŒํŠธ๊ฐ€ ๋“ค์–ด์„  ๋ชจ์Šต์€ ๊ฝค๋‚˜ ์œ„์••์ ์ด๋‹ค. ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ์ƒ๊ฐ€ ์ผ๋Œ€๊ฐ€ ๋ฏธ๊ด€๊ณผ ํ™˜๊ฒฝ์„ ํ•ด์น˜๊ณ  ๊ตํ†ต ํ˜ผ์žก์„ ์œ ๋ฐœํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ด์œ ๋กœ ์•„ํŒŒํŠธ ์ธก์˜ ๋ฏผ์›์ด ์žฆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋‹ˆ ์”์“ธํ•  ๋ฟ์ด๋‹ค.

์ง€์—ญ์—๋Š” ์ž์—ฐ์Šค๋ ˆ ๊ทธ๊ณณ์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ์Šค๋ฉฐ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ ‡๊ธฐ์— ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์—์„œ ๋ณด๋Š” ๊ฑด๋ฌผ, ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ ๊ณณ๊ณณ์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต์€ ์˜ค์ง ์ด๊ณณ์—์„œ๋งŒ ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ํ’๊ฒฝ์ด๋‹ค. ๋‹คํ–‰ํžˆ๋„ ์•„์ง๊นŒ์ง€๋Š” ์ด ์ง€์—ญ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์ด ์ˆ˜์‹ญ ๋…„ ๋™์•ˆ ์ผํ•˜๋ฉฐ ์Œ“์•„ ์˜ฌ๋ฆฐ ๊ธฐ์–ต๋“ค์ด ๊ทธ๋“ค์˜ ์ฃผ๋ณ€์— ๊ทธ๋Œ€๋กœ ๋‚จ์•„ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์•ž์œผ๋กœ ๋ช‡ ๋…„ ๋’ค ๋‹ค๊ฐ€์˜ฌ ์ •๋น„ ์‚ฌ์—…์œผ๋กœ ์ธํ•ด ๋„์‹œ๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ ์ง€๋Š” ์ง€์ผœ๋ณผ ์ผ์ด๋‹ค.





โ€œ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์„ ์•„์‹œ๋‚˜์š”?โ€, ์ •ํ˜„, ๋ฏธ์ˆ ๋น„ํ‰, ์ธํ•˜๋Œ€๊ต์ˆ˜


โ€œ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์„ ์•„์‹œ๋‚˜์š”?โ€

โ€œ์˜ค๋Š˜๋‚  ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ์„œ์šธ์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ์™€ ๋ฌธํ™”๋ฅผ ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐํ•  ๋•Œ ์ฃผ๋กœ ์‚ฌ๋Œ€๋ฌธ ์•ˆํŒŽ์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ์™€ ๋ฌธํ™” ์œ ์ ์—๋งŒ ๊ด€์‹ฌ์„ ๊ธฐ์šธ์—ฌ ์™”์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ๋•Œ๋กœ๋Š” ์˜ค๋Š˜๋‚  ์„œ์šธ์— ํ–‰์ •์ ์œผ๋กœ ํŽธ์ž…๋˜์—ˆ๋˜ ์–‘์ฃผ, ๊ด‘์ฃผ, ์‹œํฅ, ์–‘์ฒœ, ๊น€ํฌ, ๊ณ ์–‘์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ๋Š” ์ฃผ๋ณ€ ์ง€์—ญ์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ๋˜์–ด๋ฒ„๋ฆฌ๊ณค ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์ƒํ™ฉ์€ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ์˜ ํ„ฐ์ „์ธ ์„œ์šธ์„ ์ด์ฒด์ ์œผ๋กœ ์กฐ๋งํ•˜๊ธฐ ์–ด๋ ต๊ฒŒ ๋งŒ๋“ค๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.โ€
โ€• ๊น€์‹œ๋•, ใ€Ž์„œ์šธ ์„ ์–ธใ€, 25์ชฝ

์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์˜ ํ•˜๋ฃจ
์ธํ„ฐ๋„ท์œผ๋กœ โ€˜์žฅ์•ˆํ‰โ€™์„ ๊ฒ€์ƒ‰ํ•˜๋ฉด ๊ฐ€์žฅ ๋จผ์ € ์„œ์šธ์‹œ ๋„์‹ฌ์žฌ์ƒํ™œ์„ฑํ™”์ง€์—ญ ๊ด€๋ จ ๊ธฐ์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ๋œฌ๋‹ค. ๋‚ด์šฉ์„ ์‚ดํŽด๋ณด๋ฉด 1979๋…„ ์ค‘๊ณ ์ž๋™์ฐจ๋งค๋งค๋‹จ์ง€ ์ค€๊ณต ์ดํ›„ 40๋…„ ๋™์•ˆ ๋‚™ํ›„๋œ ๋‚ด์™ธ๋ถ€์  ์š”์ธ์„ ๊ฐœ์„ ํ•˜๊ณ  ์‚ฐ์—… ์ž ์žฌ๋ ฅ์„ ํ™œ์„ฑํ™”ํ•˜์—ฌ ์ฃผ๊ฑฐ์™€ ์‚ฐ์—…์ด ๋ณตํ•ฉ์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ƒ์ƒํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์ง€์—ญ์œผ๋กœ์˜ ๋ณ€์‹ ์„ ๊พ€ํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒŒ ์š”์ง€๋‹ค. ๋Œ€๊ฐœ์˜ ๊ธฐ์‚ฌ๋Š” ํ˜„์žฌ ์ค‘๊ณ ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‹œ์žฅ์ด ์ฒ˜ํ•œ ๋‚ก์€ ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌ์  ์ธํ”„๋ผ, ์˜จ๋ผ์ธ์‹œ์žฅ ํ™œ์„ฑํ™”๋กœ ์ธํ•œ ํ™˜๊ฒฝ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ฅผ ๊ทน๋ณตํ•  ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‚ฐ์—…๋ณตํ•ฉ๋‹จ์ง€ ์„ค๋ฆฝ์„ ๋‹ค๋ฃจ๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ฐ‘์ž๊ธฐ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์˜ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ๊ฐ€ ๊ถ๊ธˆํ•ด์กŒ๋‹ค. ์›๋ž˜ ์ด๊ณณ์€ ์กฐ์„ ์‹œ๋Œ€ ๊ตฐ๋งˆ ๋ฐฉ๋ชฉ์žฅ์ด์ž ๊ธฐ๋งˆํ›ˆ๋ จ์žฅ์ด์—ˆ๋˜ โ€˜๋งˆ์žฅ์•ˆ๋ฒŒโ€™์ด ์œ ๋ž˜๊ฐ€ ๋˜์–ด ์žฅํ•œํ‰, ์žฅํ•œ๋ฒŒ์ด๋ผ ๋ถˆ๋ฆฌ๊ฒŒ ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ•œ๋‹ค. ํ•œ๋ฐ ๊ฐœํ™”๊ธฐ ์žฅํ•œํ‰์€ ์œ ๋… ์žฆ์€ ์ค‘๋ž‘์ฒœ ๋ฒ”๋žŒ์„ ๋ง‰๊ณ ์ž ๋†์ง€๋กœ ๊ฐœ๊ฐ„๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. 1975๋…„ ํ† ์ง€์ •๋ฆฌ๊ตฌํš์‚ฌ์—…์„ ์‹ค์‹œํ•œ ํ›„, ์„œ์šธ์‹œ ์กฐ๋ก€์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ์ฃผ๋ณ€์˜ ์ค‘๊ณก๋™, ๋Šฅ๋™, ๊ตฐ์ž๋™์˜ ์ผ๋ถ€๋ฅผ ํ•ฉํ•˜์—ฌ ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ํ–‰์ • ์ง€์—ญ์ธ ์žฅ์•ˆ๋™์ด ์‹ ์„ค๋˜๊ณ  ๊ธฐ์กด ์šฉ๋‘๋™์ด ๋‹ต์‹ญ๋ฆฌ๋™ ์ผ๋ถ€์™€ ํ•ฉ์ณ์ง€๋ฉฐ ์šฉ๋‹ต๋™์œผ๋กœ ์žฌํŽธ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ํ•œํŽธ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์ผ๋Œ€๋Š” ์ด๋ฏธ 1964๋…„ ๊ตฐ์‚ฌ์ •๊ถŒ ์‹œ์ ˆ ์„œ์šธ๋„์‹œ๊ธฐ๋ณธ๊ณ„ํš์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ์ค€๊ณต์—…์ง€์—ญ์œผ๋กœ ์ง€์ •๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ฆ‰ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์€ ์„œ์šธ ๋„์‹ฌ ์‚ฐ์—…๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๊ณ„ํš์— ์˜ํ•˜์—ฌ ํ˜•์„ฑ๋˜์—ˆ๊ณ  ๊ทธ๋ ‡๊ฒŒ ํ˜„์žฌ์— ์ด๋ฅด๋ €๋‹ค.

๋‚ด๊ฒŒ ์žฅ์•ˆ๋™์€ ๋Œ€ํ•™ ์‹œ์ ˆ ์นœํ•œ ๋™๊ธฐ ๋ˆ„๋‚˜๊ฐ€ ์‚ด๋˜ ๋™๋„ค๋กœ ๊ธฐ์–ต๋œ๋‹ค. ์„œ์šธ์—์„œ ๋‹จ ํ•œ ๋ฒˆ๋„ ๋ฐฉ๋ฌธํ•ด ๋ณธ ์ ์ด ์—†๋Š” ์ง€์—ญ ์ค‘ ํ•œ ๊ณณ์ด ๋ฐ”๋กœ ์—ฌ๊ธฐ ์žฅ์•ˆ๋™์ด๋‹ค. ๋น„๋ก ๋ฐฉ๋ฌธํ•œ ์ ์ด ์—†๋‹ค ํ•˜์—ฌ๋„ ์†Œ์„ค, ์˜ํ™”๋‚˜ ๋“œ๋ผ๋งˆ๋ฅผ ํ†ตํ•œ ๊ฐ„์ ‘ ๊ฒฝํ—˜์ด๋ผ๋„ ์žˆ์„ ๋ฒ•ํ•œ๋ฐ, ์ „ํ˜€ ๊ธฐ์–ต์ด ์—†๋Š” ๊ฑธ ๋ณด๋ฉด ์ด ์ง€์—ญ์€ ๋ฌธํ™”์  ๋ฒ”์ฃผ์—์„œ๋„ ๊ฐ€์žฅ์ž๋ฆฌ์— ์œ„์น˜ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์ด ๋ถ„๋ช…ํ•˜๋‹ค. ๋‚ด๊ฐ€ ์—ฌ๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ์ฐพ์€ ์ด์œ ๋„ ๋ฐ”๋กœ ๋„์‹ฌ์žฌ์ƒ์„ ์•ž๋‘๊ณ  ์‚ฌ์ง„ ์•„์นด์ด๋ธŒ๋ฅผ ๋งก์€ ์ •์ •ํ˜ธ ์ž‘๊ฐ€ ๋•๋ถ„์ด๋‹ค. ์ • ์ž‘๊ฐ€๋Š” ์ง€๋‚œ 5๊ฐœ์›” ๋™์•ˆ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์—์„œ ์ดฌ์˜์„ ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ์˜ ์•ˆ๋‚ด๋ฅผ ๋ฐ›์•„ ๊ณ ์ž‘ ๋ฐ˜๋‚˜์ ˆ ๋™์•ˆ์˜ ๋ฐฉ๋ฌธ์ด ์ „๋ถ€์ธ ๋‚ด๊ฐ€ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์˜ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ์™€ ํ˜„์žฌ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋ฏธ๋ž˜๋ฅผ ๋งํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฑด ๋ถˆ๊ฐ€๋Šฅํ•˜๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์–ด๋–ค ์ธ์ƒ์„ ๋งํ•  ์ˆ˜๋Š” ์žˆ์„ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ๋ฌด์—‡๋ณด๋‹ค ๊ฑด๋ฌผ ์˜ฅ์ƒ์—์„œ ๋ณธ ์„ธ ๊ฐœ์˜ ๋ชธํ†ต์œผ๋กœ ํ˜•์„ฑ๋œ ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‚ฐ์—…๋‹จ์ง€์˜ ๊ฒฝ๊ด€์€ ์ž‘๊ฐ€์˜ ์„ค๋ช…์ด ์—†์—ˆ๋”๋ผ๋ฉด ์‚ฐ์—…๋‹จ์ง€๋กœ ์ธ์‹ํ•˜๊ธฐ๋Š” ์–ด๋ ค์› ์„ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ์ง€์—ญ์„ ๋Œ€ํ‘œํ•˜๋Š” ์ •์ฒด์„ฑ์ด ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‚ฐ์—…์— ์ง‘์ค‘๋˜์–ด ์žˆ์ง€๋งŒ, ๋‚ด๊ฐ€ ๋งˆ์ฃผํ•œ ํ˜„์‹ค์€ ์ฃผ๊ฑฐ์ง€ ๋‚ด๋ถ€์— ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ ์—…์žฅ๋“ค์ด ๋ฐ€์ง‘๋œ ํ˜•๊ตญ์— ๋” ๊ฐ€๊นŒ์›Œ ๋ณด์˜€๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค. ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์ค‘๊ณ ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‚ฐ์—…์€ ์ค‘๊ณ ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‹œ์žฅ, ์ •๋น„์—…, ๋ถ€ํ’ˆํŒ๋งค์—…์œผ๋กœ ํ˜•์„ฑ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ์ค‘ ์ค‘๊ณ ๋งค๋งค์‹œ์žฅ์€ ์ž˜ ์•Œ๋ ค์ง„ ๋งŒํผ ๊ทœ๋ชจ๊ฐ€ ์ œ๋ฒ• ํฌ๋‹ค. ํ˜„์žฌ๋Š” ์žฅํ•œํ‰ ์ง€ํ•˜์ฒ ์—ญ ์ž…๊ตฌ์— ์„ธ์›Œ์ง„ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‚ฐ์—… ์ข…ํ•ฉ์ •๋ณด์„ผํ„ฐ์™€ ์ค‘๊ณ ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‹œ์žฅ์ด ๊ธด๋ฐ€ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์—ฐ๊ฒฐ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๊ณณ์ด ๋‹จ์ง€ ์ค‘๊ณ ์ฐจ๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ๊ณ ํŒŒ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ๋ฟ๋งŒ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์ž๋™์ฐจ๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜์œผ๋กœ ํ•œ ๋ฌธํ™” ์ฐจ์›์˜ ํ™œ๋™์„ ์ง€ํ–ฅํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์Œ์„ ์—ฟ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์žฅํ•œํ‰ ์ง€ํ•˜์ฒ ์—ญ์„ ๊ธฐ์ค€์œผ๋กœ ์ค‘๋ž‘์ฒœ ๋ฐฉํ–ฅ์œผ๋กœ ๋งค๋งค์‹œ์žฅ์ด ์žˆ๊ณ , ๊ทธ ๋ฐ˜๋Œ€ํŽธ์œผ๋กœ ์ •๋น„์†Œ๋“ค์ด ๋ชจ์—ฌ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์ •๋น„์†Œ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ ๋์—์„œ ์˜ค๋ฅธ์ชฝ ๋ฐฉํ–ฅ์œผ๋กœ ๊ธธ๊ฒŒ ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ์œ ํ†ต์—… ๋ธ”๋ก์ด ํ˜•์„ฑ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์™„์ œํ’ˆ์„ ์ƒ์‚ฐํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฑฐ๋Œ€ ์‚ฐ์—…๋‹จ์ง€๋Š” ์•„๋‹ˆ์ง€๋งŒ ํ•œ ๋Œ€์˜ ์ž๋™์ฐจ๋Š” ์ด๊ณณ์—์„œ ์™„์ „ํžˆ ํ•ด์ฒด๋˜์–ด ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ๋ณ„๋กœ ๋ถ„๋ฅ˜ยท์ˆ˜๋ฆฌยทํŒ๋งค ๋ฐ ์ˆ˜์ถœ์ด ์ด๋ค„์ง„๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ๋ฐ ์†Œ๊ทœ๋ชจ ์ •๋น„์†Œ์™€ ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ์œ ํ†ต์—…์ฒด๋กœ ํ˜•์„ฑ๋œ ๋ธ”๋ก ๋งž์€ํŽธ์— ๊ณง๋ฐ”๋กœ ์—ฐ๋ฆฝ์ฃผํƒ๊ณผ ๋Œ€๋‹จ์ง€ ์•„ํŒŒํŠธ๊ฐ€ ๋“ค์–ด์„  ๋ชจ์Šต์€ ๋‚ฏ์„ค๊ฒŒ ๋ณด์˜€๋‹ค. ์ด ์˜์•„ํ•œ ๊ณต์กด์€ ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‚ฐ์—…์ง€๊ตฌ๋กœ ์•Œ๋ ค์ง„ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์˜ ์ •์ฒด์„ฑ๊ณผ ํ˜„์‹ค ์‚ฌ์ด์˜ ๊ฐ„๊ทน์„ ์‚ฐ์ถœํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ • ์ž‘๊ฐ€์™€ ๋„์‹œ์žฌ์ƒ์‚ฌ์—… ๊ด€๊ณ„์ž๋“ค์˜ ์–˜๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ๋“ค์–ด๋ณด๋‹ˆ ์ง€์†์ ์œผ๋กœ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ๋‹จ์ง€ ์ฃผ๋ณ€์— ๋Œ€๊ทœ๋ชจ ์•„ํŒŒํŠธ ๋‹จ์ง€๊ฐ€ ์ž๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ์žก์œผ๋ฉด์„œ ์†Œ์Œ๊ณผ ๊ณตํ•ด๋ฅผ ๋น„๋กฏํ•œ ์ฃผ๋ฏผ๊ณผ์˜ ๊ฐˆ๋“ฑ์ด ์•ผ๊ธฐ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ง€์—ฐ๋œ ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆํ‹ฐ(์‚ฐ์—…)์™€ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆํ‹ฐ(ํ›„๊ธฐ์‚ฐ์—…) ์‚ฌ์ด์—์„œ ์ผ์–ด๋‚œ ๋ณตํ•ฉ์ ์ธ ๊ฐˆ๋“ฑ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๋“ค๋ ธ๋‹ค. ๋‘ ๊ฐœ์˜ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์˜ ์ถฉ๋Œ๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด์ง„ ์ด ์ฃผ๋ฆ„์€ ๋„์‹œ์ธ์ด ๋„์‹œ๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ํƒœ๋„๋ฅผ ๋“œ๋Ÿฌ๋‚ธ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์€ ๋Œ€๊ฐœ ์–ด๋–ค ๊ฐ€์น˜๋ฅผ ์ฐพ๋Š”๊ฐ€์—์„œ ๋น„๋กฏ๋˜๋Š”๋ฐ, ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์—์„œ ๋งํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฐ€์น˜๋Š” ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ ๋ถ€๋™์‚ฐ ๊ฐ€๊ฒฉ์œผ๋กœ ์ˆ˜๋ ด๋˜๋Š” ๊ฒฝ์šฐ๊ฐ€ ๋งŽ์€ ๊ฒŒ ์‚ฌ์‹ค์ด๋‹ค. ์‹ค์ œ๋กœ ๋„์‹œ ํ•œ๋ณตํŒ์—์„œ ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌ์  ์ƒ์‚ฐ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์˜ ์‚ฐ์—…์ด ๊ฐ€์น˜๋ฅผ ์ฐฝ์ถœํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ์—๋Š” ํ•œ๊ณ„๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ด์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๋„์‹œ๋Š” ํ•˜๋‚˜์˜ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด ์•„๋‹Œ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์˜ ๊ฒน๊ณผ ์ธต์œผ๋กœ ์ด๋ค„์ง„๋‹ค. ์„œ๋กœ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์˜ ์ถ•๋“ค์ด ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด๋‚ธ ์ง€์ธต์˜ ํ˜•์ƒ์€ ๊ทธ ํ”์ ์„ ๋‚จ๊ธฐ๊ธฐ ๋งˆ๋ จ์ด๋‹ค. ์–ธ์  ๊ฐ€๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ๋„์‹œ์‚ฐ์—…์ง€๊ตฌ์˜ ํ’๊ฒฝ ์‚ฌ์ด์— ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ๋ฅผ ๋‚ญ๋งŒํ™”ํ•œ ์†Œ๋น„๋ฌธํ™”๊ฐ€ ์žฅ์†Œ๋ฅผ ์˜ฎ๊ฒจ๊ฐ€๋ฉด์„œ ์œ ํ–‰์„ ์ผ์œผํ‚ค๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋‚™ํ›„๋œ ์ง€์—ญ์„ ํฅ๋ฏธ๋กญ๊ฒŒ ๋ฐ”๊พธ๋Š” ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ โ€˜๊ฐœ์ž…โ€™์€ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ฐ€์ง€๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š” ๋„์‹œ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์–ด๋–ค ๊ด€์Šต๋“ค์„ ๋ณ€์šฉํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋•๋ถ„์— ์นจ์ฒดํ•œ ์ง€์—ญ์ƒ๊ถŒ์— ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์„ ๋ชจ์œผ๋Š” ๋งˆ๋ฒ•์ด ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ ์–ด๋„ ๋ฏธ๋””์–ด์˜ ์„ธ๋ก€๋ฅผ ๋ฐ›์€ ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์œ ํ–‰์€ ์ง€์—ญ ์ •์ฒด์„ฑ์„ ๊ณต๊ณ ํžˆ ๋‹ค์ง€๋Š” ๋ฐ ์ ์ž–์€ ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ์ค„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๋ฐ˜๋Œ€์˜ ์ธก๋ฉด๋„ ์ƒ๊ฐํ•ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ด์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๋„์‹œ์˜ ํ•œ ์ง€์—ญ์ด ์‚ด์•„์˜จ ์‹ค์กด์˜ ๊ธฐ์–ต์ด ๋ณ€๋•์Šค๋Ÿฌ์šด ์œ ํ–‰์˜ ์˜ํ–ฅ์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ๊ฐ‘์ž‘์Šค๋ ˆ ์ง€์›Œ์ง€๋ฉด์„œ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ๋Š” ํ˜„์žฌ์˜ ํ—ˆ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•œ ๋ฐฐ๊ฒฝ์œผ๋กœ ์ „๋ฝํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๋ง‰์„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์„๊นŒ? ์ด์— ๋น„ํ•˜์—ฌ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์€ ์„ธ์šด์ƒ๊ฐ€์™€ ์œ ์‚ฌํ•œ ์ค€๊ณต์—…์ง€๊ตฌ์ž„์—๋„ ๋ถˆ๊ตฌํ•˜๊ณ  ๋ ˆํŠธ๋กœํ† ํ”ผ์•„(retrotopia)์˜ ์œ ํ–‰์—์„œ๋„ ์กฐ๊ธˆ์€ ๋น„๊ปด์žˆ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™๋‹ค. ๋ฌผ๋ก  ๊ทธ ๋ถˆ์•ˆ์ด ์กฐ๋งŒ๊ฐ„ ๋„๋ž˜ํ•  ๋ฏธ๋ž˜์ด๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•˜๋‹ค.

์ž‘๋…„์— ์„ธ์ƒ์„ ๋– ๋‚œ ํ™ฉํ˜„์‚ฐ ์„ ์ƒ์˜ ์‚ฐ๋ฌธ์ง‘ ใ€Ž๋ฐค์ด ์„ ์ƒ์ด๋‹คใ€์—๋Š” ํ•œ๊ตญ์˜ ๋น ๋ฅธ ์œ ํ–‰์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๊ธ€ ํ•œ ํŽธ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋ˆ„๊ตฌ๋‚˜ ๋‹ค ์•Œ๋งŒํ•œ ๋‚ด์šฉ์ธ๋ฐ๋„ ์„ ์ƒ์˜ ๊ธ€์€ ๋ˆ…์ง„ํ•œ ๋ฌด๊ฒŒ๋กœ ์ฝํžŒ๋‹ค. ์กฐ๊ธˆ ์ธ์šฉํ•ด๋ณด๋ฉด, โ€œ๊ฒฐํ˜ผ์„ ํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ๊ทธ๋ ‡๊ฒŒ ์š”๋ž€์„ ๋–จ๋ฉฐ ์žฅ๋งŒํ–ˆ๋˜ ๊ฐ€๊ตฌ์™€ ์ „์ž ์ œํ’ˆ๋“ค์€ ์†๋•Œ๊ฐ€ ๋ฌป๊ธฐ๋„ ์ „์— ๋ˆ์„ ๋“ค์—ฌ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌํ•ด์•ผ ํ•  ์“ฐ๋ ˆ๊ธฐ ๋”๋ฏธ๋กœ ์ „๋ฝํ•˜๊ณ , 10๋…„์„ ์‚ด์•˜๋˜ ์•„ํŒŒํŠธ๋„ ๊ฑฐ๊ธฐ ์Œ“์ธ ์ถ”์–ต์ด ์—†๋‹ค. ์‹ฌ์ง€์–ด๋Š” ์ฃผ์†Œ๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ์–ตํ•˜๊ธฐ์กฐ์ฐจ ์–ด๋ ต๋‹ค. ๋งˆ์Œ์†์— ์Œ“์ธ ๊ธฐ์–ต์ด ์—†๊ณ  ์‚ฌ๋ฌผ๋“ค ์†์—๋„ ์Œ“์•„๋‘” ์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด ์—†์œผ๋‹ˆ, ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๋‚ ๋งˆ๋‹ค ์„ธ์ƒ์„ ์ฒ˜์Œ ์‚ฌ๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ์‚ด์•„๊ฐ„๋‹ค.โ€ ์œ„ ๋‚ด์šฉ์€ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์„ ๋‘˜๋Ÿฌ๋ณด๋Š” ์™€์ค‘์— ์ž์ฃผ ๋– ์˜ฌ๋ฆฐ ์ƒ๊ฐ๊ณผ ๋งˆ์นจ ๋”ฑ ๋งž์•„๋–จ์–ด์ง„๋‹ค. ์„ ์ƒ์€ ์œ ํ–‰์ด๋ž€ ํ˜„์ƒ๋งŒ์„ ๋น„ํŒํ•œ ๊ฒŒ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Š” ํ˜„๋Œ€์ธ์ด ํ•˜๋ฃจ์‚ด์ด์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ๋„ ๋ฏธ๋ž˜๋„ ์—†๋Š” ์‚ถ์„ ์‚ฐ๋‹ค๊ณ  ์—ผ๋ คํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ, โ€œ์ธ๊ฐ„์€ ์žฌ๋ฌผ๋งŒ ์ €์ถ•ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์‹œ๊ฐ„๋„ ์ €์ถ•ํ•œโ€๋‹ค๋ฉด์„œ, โ€œ๊ทธ๋‚ ์˜ ๊ธฐ์–ต๋ฐ–์— ์—†๋Š” ์‚ถ์€ ๊ทธ๋‚  ๋ฒŒ์–ด ๊ทธ๋‚  ๋จน๋Š” ์‚ถ๋ณด๋‹ค ์Šฌํ”„๋‹คโ€๋Š” ๋งˆ์Œ์„ ๋น„์นœ๋‹ค. ์„ ์ƒ์˜ ๊ธ€์€ ํ˜„์žฌ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์‚ด๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š” ์‚ถ์˜ ํ„ฐ์ „์ธ ๋„์‹œ์™€ ๋„์‹œ์ธ์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต๊ณผ ๋ฌ˜ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ฒน์นœ๋‹ค. ๋Š์ž„์—†์ด ๋‚ก์€ ๊ฒƒ ๋Œ€์‹  ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋Œ€์ฒด๋˜๋Š” ๋„์‹œ์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต, ๋‹ค์–‘์„ฑ์„ ์ง€ํ–ฅํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์ด์ƒํ•˜๋ฆฌ๋งŒํผ ํš์ผํ™”๋œ ์œ ํ–‰์ด ์ผ์ƒ์„ ์žฅ์•…ํ•ด๋ฒ„๋ฆฌ๋Š” ํ˜„์‹ค์˜ ๋ชจ์ˆœ๊ณผ ๋‹ฎ์•˜๋‹ค. ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ๋‹จ์ง€ ์‚ฌ์ž‡๊ธธ์„ ๊ฑท๋‹ค ๋ณด๋ฉด ๊ณณ๊ณณ์— ์ž๋™์ฐจ ๊ด€๋ จ ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ๋“ค์ด ๊ฑด๋ฌผ์˜ ๋นˆํ‹ˆ๋งˆ๋‹ค ๋นผ๊ณกํžˆ ์ ์žฌ๋œ ๋ชจ์Šต์„ ์™ธ๋ฉดํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค. ์ •์ •ํ˜ธ์˜ ์‚ฌ์ง„์—์„œ๋„ ์‰ฝ๊ฒŒ ๋ชฉ๊ฒฉ๋˜๋Š” ์žฅ๋ฉด์ด๋‹ค. ํ•œ๋ฐ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์€ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์˜ ์ผœ๊ฐ€ ์Œ“์ธ ์ง€์ธต๋„ ์•„๋‹ˆ๊ณ  ๊ทธ๋ ‡๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋„ˆ๋ฌด๋„ ํฌ๊ท€ํ•˜๊ธฐ์— ๋ง๋ถ™์—ฌ์ง€๋Š” ํŠน๋ณ„ํ•จ๊ณผ๋Š” ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์–ด ๋ณด์˜€๋‹ค. ์ž๋™์ฐจ ๋‚ด์—ฐ๊ธฐ๊ด€์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ง€์‹์ด ๋ถ€์กฑํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๊ทธ๋ž˜๋„ ๊ทธ๊ณณ์— ์Œ“์—ฌ์žˆ๋Š” ๊ธฐ์–ต-์—†๋Š”-๋ฌผ๊ฑด์ด ๋ณด์กด์˜ ๊ฐ’์–ด์น˜๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋Š” ์œ ๋ฌผ์ด๋‚˜ ๊ณจ๋™์ด ์•„๋‹Œ ๊ฒƒ์€ ๋ถ„๋ช…ํ•ด ๋ณด์˜€๋‹ค. ๋Œ€๋ฌธ ์ง€๋ถ• ์œ„์— ๋นผ๊ณกํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์Œ“์ธ ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ๋“ค, ๋งˆ์น˜ ์„ ์‚ฌ์‹œ๋Œ€ ๊ณต๋ฃก ๋ผˆ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๊ณ ๋Œ€์ ์ธ ๋Š๋‚Œ์„ ์ฃผ๋Š” ๋‚ด์—ฐ๊ธฐ๊ด€์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต์€ ๋ฌธ๋ช…์ด ๋ฉธ๋งํ•œ ๋ฏธ๋ž˜๋ฅผ ๊ทธ๋ฆฐ ์˜ํ™” ใ€ˆ๋งค๋“œ๋งฅ์Šคใ€‰๋ฅผ ์—ฐ์ƒ์‹œํ‚จ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ๋ฐ ๊ณผ์—ฐ ์ด๋Ÿฐ ์žฅ๋ฉด๋“ค์„ ๊ธฐ๋กํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒŒ ์–ด๋–ค ์˜๋ฏธ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋Š”์ง€ ์—ฌ์ „ํžˆ ๋ง‰์—ฐํ•˜๋‹ค. ๋‹จ์ˆœํžˆ ์ด๊ณณ์ด ์กด์žฌํ–ˆ์Œ์„ ์ฆ๋ช…ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ ๊ธฐ๋ก์ผ๊นŒ? ํ˜น์€ ๋น„๋ก ํ•˜์ฐฎ์€ ์‚ฌ๋ฌผ์ด์ง€๋งŒ ํ•œ๊ตญ์˜ ์‚ฐ์—…ํ™”์˜ ๊ณผ์ •์„ ์ฆ์–ธํ•˜๋Š” ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๊ฒฐ์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ ์„œ์‚ฌ์˜ ๊ธฐ๋ก์— ํฌํ•จ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์„๊นŒ? ์„œ์šธ์‹œ๋Š” ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ์™€ ๋ฏธ๋ž˜๋ฅผ ์ž‡๋Š” ๋„์‹œ์žฌ์ƒ์„ ํŽผ์น˜๊ฒ ๋…ธ๋ผ๊ณ  ์žฅ๋‹ดํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿผ์—๋„ ์ง€๊ธˆ์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต์€ ์‚ฌ๋ผ์งˆ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ๊ณผ์—ฐ ๋ˆ„๊ฐ€ ๊ทธ๊ณณ์„ ๊ธฐ์–ตํ• ๊นŒ? ๋ฐ˜๋Œ€๋กœ ์ด๊ณณ์€ ๊ธฐ์–ตํ• ๋งŒํ•œ ๊ฐ€์น˜๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋Š”๊ฐ€๋ฅผ ๋˜๋ฌผ์–ด๋ณด๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ ‡๋‹ค๋ฉด ์—ญ์‚ฌ์ ์œผ๋กœ๋‚˜ ๊ณ ๊ณ ํ•™์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐ€์น˜๋ฅผ ์ธ์ •๋ฐ›์•„์•ผ ๋ณด์กด๊ณผ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ๋’ค๋”ฐ๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ผ๊นŒ? ๋ฌธํ—Œํ•™์ž ๊น€์‹œ๋•์€ ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๊ฒฌํ•ด์— ๋Œ€ํ•˜์—ฌ ์ผ์นจ์„ ๋†“๋Š”๋‹ค. ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ์˜ ์„œ์šธ, ์ฆ‰ ์‚ฌ๋Œ€๋ฌธ ์•ˆ๋งŒ์ด ์„œ์šธ์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ์ฃผ์žฅํ•˜๋Š” ๋ช‡๋ช‡ ์—ญ์‚ฌํ•™์ž๋“ค์˜ ๊ด€์Šต์„ ๋‘๊ณ  ํ•˜๋Š” ๋ง์ด๋‹ค. ์ด์ œ ์—ญ์‚ฌํ•™ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋„ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ ์„œ์šธ์ด์—ˆ๋˜ ๊ณณ์— ์‚ด ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์€ ๊ทน์†Œ์ˆ˜์ด์ง€๋งŒ, ์ ์  ๋” ์˜์—ญ์„ ๋„“ํžˆ๋Š” ๊ฑฐ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋„์‹œ ์„œ์šธ์— ๊ฑฐ์ฃผํ•˜๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์€ ์ฒœ๋งŒ์ธ ํ˜„์‹ค์„ ๋ฐ›์•„๋“ค์—ฌ์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ฃผ์žฅ์ด๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Š” ๊ด€์Šต์  ์—ญ์‚ฌํ•™์ด โ€œ์กฐ์„  ํ›„๊ธฐ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์ฃผ์˜, ์‚ฌ๋Œ€๋ฌธ ์•ˆ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์ฃผ์˜, ์™•์กฑยท์–‘๋ฐ˜ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์ฃผ์˜, ์ฃผ์žํ•™ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์ฃผ์˜, ๋‚จ์„ฑ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์ฃผ์˜โ€๋กœ ๋น„๋กฏ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํž˜์ฃผ์–ด ๋งํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋‚˜๋Š” ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์•„์นด์ด๋ธŒ๊ฐ€ ํ•„์š”ํ•œ ์ด์œ ๋ฅผ ๋ฐ”๋กœ ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์—์„œ ์ฐพ์•˜๋‹ค.

์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์˜ ๊ธฐ๋ก
์ •์ •ํ˜ธ๋Š” ์›๋ž˜ ๋ถ„์Ÿ์ง€์—ญ ๊ธฐ์ž๋ฅผ ๊ฟˆ๊ฟจ์„ ์ •๋„๋กœ ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ์š•๋ง๊ณผ ์ด๋…, ๊ฐ€์น˜ ๋“ฑ์— ๊ด€์‹ฌ์ด ๋งŽ์•˜๋˜ ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ์ง„์ž‘๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ๋œ ์ดํ›„๋กœ๋„ ๋” ๋‚˜์€ ๋ฏธ๋ž˜๋ฅผ ์ƒ์ƒํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ทธ๊ณณ์— ๋‹ค๊ฐ€๊ฐ€๋ ค๋Š” ์‹คํ—˜์„ ์ง€์†ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ง€๋‚œํ•ด์—๋Š” ํ• ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€์˜ ์•Œ๋ ค์ง€์ง€ ์•Š์€ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ๋ฅผ ์ถ”์ ํ•˜๋Š” ์ž‘์—…์„ ์ง„ํ–‰ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์–ด๋– ํ•œ ๊ธฐ๋ก๋„ ๋ช…์˜ˆ๋„ ๊ฐ–์ง€ ๋ชปํ•œ ์ฑ„ ํ•œ๊ตญ์ „์—์„œ ์ „์‚ฌํ•œ ํ• ์•„๋ฒ„์ง€์˜ ํ”์ ์„ ์ฐพ์•„๊ฐ€๋Š” ์ž‘์—…์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‚ฐ์—…๋‹จ์ง€ ๊ธฐ๋ก ์ž‘์—…๋„ ํฌ๊ฒŒ ๋ณด๋ฉด ํ•œ๊ตญ์˜ ๊ทผํ˜„๋Œ€์‚ฌ๋ฅผ ๋ฏธ์‹œ์ ์œผ๋กœ ํšก๋‹จํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ด€์ ๊ณผ ๋งˆ์ฃผ์นœ๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์ž‘์—…์€ ๊ธฐ์กด ์ž‘์—…๊ณผ๋Š” ๊ทธ ๋ฐ”ํƒ•๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์–ด๋Š ์ •๋„ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์šฐ์„  ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์•„์นด์ด๋ธŒ๋Š” ์‹œ๋ฏผ์ฐธ์—ฌ ํ”„๋กœ์ ํŠธ๋กœ ๊ธฐํš๋˜์—ˆ๊ณ , ์ •์ •ํ˜ธ๋Š” ์ž‘๊ฐ€๋ผ๋Š” ์ˆ˜์‹์„ ์ง€์šฐ๊ณ  ์„œ์šธ์‹œ๋ฏผ์œผ๋กœ์„œ ์ฐธ์—ฌํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋‹ค์Œ์œผ๋กœ๋Š” ์ž‘๊ฐ€๋กœ์„œ์˜ ๋น„ํ‰์  ์ž…์žฅ์„ ์•ž์„ธ์šฐ๊ธฐ๋ณด๋‹ค ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‚ฐ์—…๋‹จ์ง€์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต์„ ์ตœ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์žˆ๋Š” ๊ทธ๋Œ€๋กœ ์žฌํ˜„ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๋ณธ์ธ ์Šค์Šค๋กœ ๋ถ€์—ฌํ•œ ์˜๋ฌด๊ฐ์„ ๋“ค ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ์ง„์„ ์ฐ๋Š”๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ 4์ฐจ์› ๊ณต๊ฐ„์„ 2์ฐจ์›์œผ๋กœ ์žฌํ˜„ํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ํ•„์—ฐ์  ํ•œ๊ณ„์—์„œ ์ถœ๋ฐœํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ํ‰๋ฉด์— ๋‹ด๊ธด ์„ธ๊ณ„๋Š” ์–ด์ฉ” ์ˆ˜ ์—†์ด ์ฐฉ์‹œํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด๋‚ธ๋‹ค. ๋•๋ถ„์— ํ‰๋ฒ”ํ•จ ํ”ผ์‚ฌ์ฒด๊ฐ€ ๊ฐ‘์ž๊ธฐ ํŠน๋ณ„ํ•œ ์‚ฌ์—ฐ์„ ๊ฐ€์ง„ ๋Œ€์ƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋Œ๋ณ€ํ•˜๋Š” ์‚ฌ๊ฑด์ด ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ด ์ ์ด ๋˜ํ•œ ์‚ฌ์ง„์— ๋งค๋ฃŒ๋˜๋Š” ์ง€์ ์ผ ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์—„๊ฒฉํžˆ ๋”ฐ์ง€์ž๋ฉด ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์‚ฌ์ง„์€ ํ˜„์‹ค์„ ํ—ˆ๊ตฌํ™”ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ด๋ฒˆ ํ”„๋กœ์ ํŠธ์—์„œ ์ •์ •ํ˜ธ๋Š” ๋˜๋„๋ก ์‚ฌ์ง„์˜ ๊ทน์  ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ์ตœ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์–ต์ œํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•˜์—ฌ ํ‰๋ฉด์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ดฌ์˜ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์‚ฌ์ง„์—์„œ ์ฃผ๋ชฉํ•  ๋ถ€๋ถ„์€ ์‚ฌ์ง„์˜ ์žฌํ˜„๊ณผ ๊ทธ ์œค๋ฆฌ์™€์˜ ๊ด€๊ณ„์— ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ์ง„์ˆ ์€ ํ˜„์‹ค์„ ์žฌํ˜„ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์„ ์žˆ๋Š” ๊ทธ๋Œ€๋กœ๋งŒ ๋‹ด์•„๋‚ด์ง€๋Š” ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค. ์™œ๊ณก, ๊ณผ์žฅ, ์‚ญ์ œ ๋“ฑ์„ ํ†ตํ•˜์—ฌ ๋Œ€์ƒ์„ ๊ทน์ ์œผ๋กœ ํƒˆ๋ฐ”๊ฟˆ์‹œํ‚ค๋Š” ๊ฒŒ ๋ฐ”๋กœ ์‚ฌ์ง„์ˆ ์ด๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค. ์‹ค์ œ๋กœ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต์€ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ํ’ˆ๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š” ์ง€์—ญ์— ๊ด€ํ•œ ์„ ์ž…๊ฒฌ๊ณผ๋Š” ์ƒ๋‹นํ•œ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์šฐ์„  ์กฐ์šฉํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ตœ๊ทผ ํ•ด์™ธ๋ฌด์—ญ์ด ์–ด๋ ค์›Œ์ง€๋ฉด์„œ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚œ ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ๋‘”ํ™”์˜ ์˜ํ–ฅ๋„ ์žˆ์ง€๋งŒ, ์ „๋ฐ˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๋‚˜ ์—…์žฅ ๋ชจ๋‘ ์ฐจ๋ถ„ํ•œ ๋ถ„์œ„๊ธฐ์˜€๋‹ค. ๋˜ํ•œ ์‹œ์„ ์„ ์ง€๋ฐฐํ•  ์ •๋„์˜ ๊ฐ•๋ ฅํ•œ ์ŠคํŽ™ํ„ฐํด์€ ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค. ์†Œ๊ทœ๋ชจ ์‚ฌ์—…์žฅ์œผ๋กœ ์ด๋ค„์ง„ ๋ฉด๋„ ์–ด๋Š ์ •๋„ ์˜ํ–ฅ์ด ์žˆ๊ฒ ์ง€๋งŒ ๋…ธํฌ๊ฐ€ ์ฃผ๋Š” ๊ฐ•๋ ฅํ•œ ํ–ฅ์ˆ˜๋‚˜ ์ ์žฌ๋œ ๊ธฐ๊ณ„๋ถ€ํ’ˆ์ด ์••๋„์ ์ด์ง€๋„ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค. ์ค‘๊ณ ์ž๋™์ฐจ์‹œ์žฅ๋„ ๋งˆ์ฐฌ๊ฐ€์ง€์˜€๋‹ค. ์™„๋ฒฝํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์„ธ์ฐจ๋œ ๋‹ค์ข…๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ์ž๋™์ฐจ๋“ค์ด ์—ด์„ ๋งž์ถฐ ์„ธ์›Œ์ง„ ๋ชจ์Šต๋„ ์ต์ˆ™ํ•œ ํ’๊ฒฝ์ด์–ด์„œ์ธ์ง€ ์ƒˆ๋กญ๋‹ค๋Š” ๋Š๋‚Œ์„ ๋ฐ›๊ธฐ๋Š” ์–ด๋ ค์› ๋‹ค. ํ‰์ผ์ด๋ผ ๊ฑฐ๋ž˜๊ฐ€ ๋œธํ•œ ์ƒํ™ฉ์—์„œ ํ˜ธ๊ฐํ•˜๋Š” ๋”œ๋Ÿฌ์˜ ์ „ํ˜•์  ๋งํˆฌ, ์ƒ๊ฐ€ ๊ฑด๋ฌผ์˜ ๊ฐ„ํŒ๊ณผ ์„œ์ฒด, ๊ฑฐ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์„ฑ๋ฒฝ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ์šฐ๋š ์„œ ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ธŒ๋žœ๋“œ ์•„ํŒŒํŠธ ๋‹จ์ง€์™€ ์žฌ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๋กœ ๋ฌธ์„ ๋‹ซ์€ ์žฌ๋ž˜์‹œ์žฅ์˜ ํ™ฉํํ•จ์ด ์˜คํžˆ๋ ค ๋” ๋น„ํ˜„์‹ค์ ์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ์‚ฌ์ง„์€ ์ง‘์ ๋œ ์ž๋™์ฐจ ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ๊ณผ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ๋‹จ์ง€์˜ ๋‚ดยท์™ธ๋ถ€, ๋‘ ๊ฐœ์˜ ์œ ํ˜•์œผ๋กœ ๋ถ„๋ฅ˜๋œ๋‹ค. ์ž‘๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ์‚ฌ๋ฌผ ์‚ฌ์ง„์ด๋ผ ๋ถ€๋ฅด๋Š” ์ฒซ ๋ฒˆ์งธ ์œ ํ˜•์€ ๊ณ ์ฒ , ๊ธฐ๊ณ„๋ถ€ํ’ˆ, ์žฌ์กฐํ•ฉ ๋“ฑ์˜ ์—ด์‡ณ๋ง์„ ์—ฐ์ƒ์‹œํ‚จ๋‹ค. ์ •์ •ํ˜ธ๋Š” ์กฐ๊ธˆ์˜ ์‚ฌ์ ์ธ ๊ฐ์ •์„ ํˆฌ์‚ฌํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๊ณ  ์ด ์‚ฌ๋ฌผ๋“ค์„ ๊ธฐ๋กํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋‘ ๋ฒˆ์งธ ์œ ํ˜•์€ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ๋‹จ์ง€ ๊ฑด๋ฌผ์˜ ์•ˆํŒŽ์„ ์กฐ๋งํ•œ๋‹ค. ์žฌ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ์„ ์•ž๋‘” ์‹œ์žฅ์„ ๊ฒฝ๊ณ„๋กœ ๋‹ค์„ธ๋Œ€์ฃผํƒ๊ณผ ์•„ํŒŒํŠธ๋‹จ์ง€๋ฅผ ๋‹ด์€ ํ’๊ฒฝ๊ณผ ์ธ์ ์ด ๋“œ๋ฌธ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ์žฅ์•…ํ•œ ๋ถ€ํ’ˆ๋“ค๋กœ ์ฑ„์›Œ์ง„ ์ •๋น„์†Œ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต์€ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด ๋น„๊ปด๊ฐ”๋‹ค๋Š” ๋‚ญ๋งŒ์ ์ธ ๋ฌ˜์‚ฌ๋ณด๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ๋งŒ์„ ํƒ‘์žฌํ•œ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ์— ๋” ๊ฐ€๊นŒ์›Œ ๋ณด์ธ๋‹ค. ํ™ฉํ˜„์‚ฐ ์„ ์ƒ์€ โ€œ์‚ถ์ด ์ง„์ •ํ•œ ๊ธฐ์–ต์œผ๋กœ ๊ทธ ์ผ๊ด€์„ฑ์„ ์–ป์ง€ ๋ชปํ•˜๋ฉด, ์ด ์‚ถ์€ ์™œ ์‚ฌ๋Š”์ง€์กฐ์ฐจ ์•Œ ์ˆ˜ ์—†๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค. ์‚ถ์ด ๊ทธ ๋‚ด๋ถ€์—์„œ ์˜๋ฏธ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด๋‚ด์ง€ ๋ชปํ•˜๋ฉด ๋ฐ–์—์„œ ์ƒ์‚ฐ๋œ ๊ธฐํ˜ธ๋กœ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์„ ๋Œ€์‹ ํ•  ์ˆ˜๋ฐ–์— ์—†โ€(191์ชฝ)๋‹ค๊ณ  ๊ฐ•์กฐํ•œ๋‹ค. ํฌํ•ญ, ์šธ์‚ฐ, ์ฐฝ์› ๊ฐ™์€ ๋Œ€๊ทœ๋ชจ ์‚ฐ์—…๋‹จ์ง€๋Š” ์ผ์ƒ๊ณผ ๋ถ„๋ฆฌ๋˜์–ด ๋˜ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ํ•˜๋‚˜์˜ ๋„์‹œ๋กœ ์กด์žฌํ•œ๋‹ค. ํ•œํŽธ ๋„์‹œ ๋‚ด ์‚ฐ์—…๋‹จ์ง€๋Š” ์ผ์ƒ์— ๊ฐ€๊นŒ์ด ์กด์žฌํ•˜๊ธฐ์— ์ •์ฒด์„ฑ์ด ๋ชจํ˜ธํ•œ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ๊ฐ€ ๋ฐœ์ƒํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ •์ •ํ˜ธ๋Š” ์„ฃ๋ถˆ๋ฆฌ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์˜ ์ •์ฒด์„ฑ์„ ๊ธฐํ˜ธํ™”ํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค. ๋˜ํ•œ ๊ด€์Œ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋‚ด๋ถ€๋ฅผ ์ ๋‚˜๋ผํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์žฌํ˜„ํ•˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ํ‘œํ˜„ํ•˜์ง€๋„ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค. ์–ด์ฉŒ๋ฉด ํ˜„์žฌ์˜ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์ด ๊ฐ€์ง€๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ฏธํ•™์  ๊ฐ€์น˜๊ฐ€ ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์— ์žˆ๋Š” ๊ฑด ์•„๋‹๊นŒ? ๋ฌธ๋ž˜, ์„ฑ์ˆ˜, ์ฒญ๊ณ„์ฒœ, ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰ ๋“ฑ์˜ ๋„์‹œ์‚ฐ์—…๋‹จ์ง€๋Š” ๋งน๋ชฉ์ ์œผ๋กœ ์™ธ์—ฐ์„ ํ‚ค์šฐ๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์‹œ๊ฐ์  ๊ธฐํ˜ธ๋กœ ๋ณธ์งˆ์„ ๊ฐ€๋ฆฌ์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค. ๋Œ€์‹  ์ •์ •ํ˜ธ๋Š” ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์˜ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ์—์„œ ์–ด๋‘ก๊ณ  ์ฐจ๊ฐ€์šด ๊ณ„์ ˆ์˜ ๋‚ ์”จ์™€ ์ƒ์กดํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์Œ“์•„ ์˜ฌ๋ฆฐ ๊ธฐ๊ณ„ ๋ถ€์†๋“ค๊ณผ ๊ธฐ๋ฆ„๋•Œ์˜ ๋ƒ„์ƒˆ๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์ง„์œผ๋กœ ํฌ์ฐฉํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ „๋ฐ˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ์–ด๋‘ก๊ณ  ์ฐจ๊ฐ€์šด ๋Š๋‚Œ์€ ์ดฌ์˜ ๊ธฐ๊ฐ„์ด ์ด๋ฒˆ ๊ฒจ์šธ์— ์ด๋ค„์ง„ ํƒ“์ด๋‹ค. ๊ธฐ๋ก ์ž‘์—…์€ ์•ž์œผ๋กœ๋„ ๊ณ„์†๋  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ์ž์—ฐ์Šค๋ ˆ ๊ทธ๊ณณ์—์„œ ์‚ด์•„๊ฐ€๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต๊ณผ ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐ๋„ ๋‹ด๊ธฐ๊ฒŒ ๋  ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™๋‹ค. ์˜ค๋Š˜์˜ ์•„์นด์ด๋ธŒ๋Š” ๋ฌด์—‡๋ณด๋‹ค ๊ฐœ์ธ, ์ผ์ƒ์˜ ๊ธฐ๋ก์— ์žˆ๋Š”๋ฐ, ์ตœ๊ทผ ๋“ค์–ด์„œ๋Š” ๋‹ค์†Œ ์–‘์‹ํ™”๋˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™์•„ ๋…ธํŒŒ์‹ฌ์ด ์ƒ๊ธฐ๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ค‘์š”ํ•œ ๊ฑด ๊ทธ๋“ค์˜ ๋ชฉ์†Œ๋ฆฌ, ๊ฐ๊ฐ, ๊ฒฝํ—˜๊ณผ ๊ธฐ์–ต์„ ์–ด๋–ค ๊ทธ๋ฆ‡์— ๋‹ด์•„๋‚ผ ๊ฒƒ์ธ๊ฐ€์— ์žˆ๋‹ค.

๋„์‹œ์˜ ๊ธฐ์–ต
๋„์‹œ๋Š” ์ •์˜ ๋‚ด๋ฆฌ๊ธฐ ์–ด๋ ค์šด ๋Œ€์ƒ์ด๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์€ ์˜ค๋žœ ์‹œ๊ฐ„ ์ž์—ฐ๊ณผ ๋ฌธ๋ช…์ด ๊ด€๊ณ„๋ฅผ ๋งบ์œผ๋ฉด์„œ ์ผ์–ด๋‚œ ์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€ ๊ฐˆ๋“ฑ๊ณผ ๊ทธ๋งŒํผ์˜ ํ™”ํ•ด, ๋Œ๋ด„๊ณผ ์• ์ •, ํŒŒ๊ดด์™€ ํšŒ๋ณต์„ ๊ฑฐ๋“ญํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ํ˜•์„ฑ๋˜์—ˆ๊ธฐ์— ๋งค์šฐ ๋ณตํ•ฉ์ ์ด๊ณ  ๋ฏธ๋ฌ˜ํ•˜๋‹ค. ์ธ์œ„์ ์œผ๋กœ ์žฌ๋‹จํ•œ ๊ธธ๊ณผ ๊ฑด๋ฌผ ์‚ฌ์ด์— ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์˜ ์Šต๊ด€๊ณผ ์ž์—ฐํ˜„์ƒ์ด ์”จ์‹ค๊ณผ ๋‚ ์‹ค๋กœ ์กฐ์ง๋œ, ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‹ˆ๊นŒ ์šฐ์—ฐ๊ณผ ์˜๋„๊ฐ€ ํ˜ผํ•ฉ๋˜์–ด ์ƒ์„ฑ๋œ ํ•˜๋‚˜์˜ ์ƒํƒœ๊ฐ€ ๋ฐ”๋กœ ๋„์‹œ๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋“ ๋‹ค. ์„œ์šธ๋„ ๋งˆ์ฐฌ๊ฐ€์ง€๋‹ค. ํ”ํžˆ 600๋…„ ์ˆ˜๋„๋ผ ๋ถ€๋ฅด์ง€๋งŒ 20์„ธ๊ธฐ ์ดํ›„ ์„œ์šธ์€ ์ง€์†์ ์œผ๋กœ ํ™•์žฅ ์ค‘์ด๋‹ค. ํ•ด๋ฐฉ ์ดํ›„ ๋Œ€ํ•œ๋ฏผ๊ตญ์˜ ๋„์‹œํ™”๋Š” ์‚ฐ์—…์„ ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜์œผ๋กœ ์ด๋ค„์ง„ ๋Œ€๋Œ€์ ์ธ ๊ฑด์„ค์‚ฌ์—…์˜ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฌผ๋กœ ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๋ ‡๋“ฏ ๋„์‹œ๊ฐ€ ์ƒ์„ฑ๋˜๊ณ  ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๋˜๋Š” ์™€์ค‘์— ์–ด๋–ค ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ๋Š” ์ง€์ผœ์•ผ ํ•  ์—ญ์‚ฌ๋ฌผ๋กœ ๋Œ€์ ‘๋ฐ›์•˜๊ณ  ๋ณด์ „๋œ ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด ์–ด๋–ค ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ๋Š” ๋ฐฐ์ฒ™๋˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ์‹ฌ์ง€์–ด ํŒŒ๊ดด๋œ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ๋„ ํ—ˆ๋‹คํ•˜๋‹ค. ์—ญ์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ๋œ ์ง€์ผœ์•ผ ํ•  ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ๋Š” ํ˜„์žฌ๋Š” ๋ฌผ๋ก ์ด๊ณ  ์ง€์†์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฏธ๋ž˜์— ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ์ค€๋‹ค. ์—ญ์‚ฌ๋ผ๋Š” ์ด๋ฐ์˜ฌ๋กœ๊ธฐ๋Š” ๋‚˜๋ผ, ๋ฏผ์กฑ, ๊ณต๋™์ฒด ์˜์‹์„ ๋‚ด์žฌํ™”ํ•˜์—ฌ ํ˜„๋Œ€ ๊ตญ๊ฐ€์˜ ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜์œผ๋กœ ์‚ผ๋Š”๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋ฏ€๋กœ ๋„์‹œ๋Š” ๋‹จ์ˆœํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ฐœ์ธ์˜ ์‚ถ์„ ๋งŒ์กฑ์‹œํ‚ค๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•˜์—ฌ ์กด์žฌํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒŒ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ ์ด๋ฐ์˜ฌ๋กœ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ๋’ค์„ž์ธ ์ƒํƒœ์—์„œ ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ์š•๋ง์ด ์žฅ์†Œ, ์ž๋ณธ, ์‚ฌํšŒ, ์‚ฌ๋ฌผ๊ณผ ๋งบ์€ ๊ด€๊ณ„์— ์˜ํ•˜์—ฌ ํ˜•์„ฑ๋œ๋‹ค. ์–ธ๋œป ๋ณด๊ธฐ์—” ์ธ๊ฐ„์ด ๋„์‹œ์˜ ์ฃผ์ธ ํ˜น์€ ๋„์‹œ๋ฅผ ์ผ์œผํ‚จ ์žฅ๋ณธ์ธ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๋“ค๋ฆฌ์ง€๋งŒ, ์‚ฌ์‹ค ๋„์‹œ์˜ ๋™๋ ฅ์€ ์ธ๊ฐ„์ด๋ผ๊ธฐ๋ณด๋‹ค๋Š” ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ์š•๋ง์„ ์ž๊ทนํ•˜๋Š” ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ํ˜•ํƒœ์˜ ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์ด ์žฅ์•…ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ์ด๋ฐ์˜ฌ๋กœ๊ธฐ๋Š” ๋‚ก์€ ๊ด€๋…์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ๋งค์šฐ ํ˜„์‹ค์ ์ด๊ณ  ๋™์‹œ๊ฐ„์ ์ธ ๊ฐœ๋…์ด๋‹ค. 21์„ธ๊ธฐ ์„ธ๊ณ„ํ™”๋œ ๋„์‹œ์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต์€ ์„ธ์ƒ์˜ ๋ชจ๋“  ๊ฐ€์น˜๊ฐ€ ํ˜ผ์žฌํ•˜๋Š” ๊ณณ์ด๋‹ค. ์ด๋ฅธ๋ฐ” ๋Œ€๋„์‹œ๋ž€ ํ•˜๋‚˜์˜ ๊ฑฐ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋ฐฑํ™”์ ๊ณผ ๋‹ค๋ฅด์ง€ ์•Š์•„ ๋ณด์ธ๋‹ค. ๊ธธ์€ ์ ์  ๋” ์ตœ๊ณ ์˜ ํผํฌ๋จผ์Šค๋ฅผ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ค„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์ž๋™์ฐจ๋“ค์˜ ๋ฌด๋Œ€๊ฐ€ ๋˜์—ˆ๊ณ  ์ˆ˜๋ช…์ด ๊ธด ๋‚ก์€ ์žฅ์†Œ ์•ˆ์œผ๋กœ ๊ธฐ์กด ์ƒ๊ถŒ๊ณผ๋Š” ์ฐจ๋ณ„๋œ ์ƒ์ ๊ณผ ์‹๋‹น์ด ๋ชฐ๋ฆฐ๋‹ค. ํฅ๋ฏธ๋กœ์šด ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์ด ๋ชจ์ด๊ธฐ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ•˜๋ฉด, ์–ด๋Š ์‚ฌ์ด ์ด๊ณณ์€ ์‹œ์žฅ์„ ์žฅ์•…ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ ํ˜ˆ์ „์ด ๋ฒŒ์–ด์ง€๋Š” ๋ฌดํ˜‘์˜ ํ˜„์žฅ ํ˜น์€ ์Šฌํ”ˆ ๋“œ๋ผ๋งˆ์˜ ํ˜„์žฅ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณ€๋ชจํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ด์ œ ์žฅ์†Œ๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋ผ์ง€๊ณ , ๋‹น์—ฐํžˆ ๊ทธ๊ณณ์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ๋‚˜ ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐ๋„ ๊ทธ๋ฆผ์ž ๋’ค๋กœ ์ˆจ์–ด๋ฒ„๋ฆฐ๋‹ค. ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ธฐ์–ตํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฑด ์˜ค๋กœ์ง€ ์ž๋ณธ์˜ ๊ฐ€์น˜์™€ ์‹œ์žฅ๋…ผ๋ฆฌ์˜ ํฌ์•…ํ•จ๋ฟ์ด๋‹ค. ์•„์นด์ด๋ธŒ๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋ก์„ ์œ„ํ•œ ๊ธฐ๋ก์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์ •์ •ํ˜ธ์˜ ์‚ฌ์ง„์€ ์•„์นด์ด๋ธŒ๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•œ ์ตœ์ดˆ์˜ ๊ธฐ๋ก์œผ๋กœ, ์•ž์œผ๋กœ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์€ ์ด ๊ธฐ๋ก์„ ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜์œผ๋กœ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ๊ด€์ ์œผ๋กœ ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์„ ๋‹ด์•„๋‚ผ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ์ƒ๊ฐ€ ์•™๋ฆฌ ๋ฅดํŽ˜๋ธŒ๋ฅด(Henri Lefebvre)๋Š” โ€œ๋„์‹œ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌโ€(Le Droit ? la ville)๋ฅผ ์ฃผ์žฅํ•œ ๋ฐ” ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์™œ๋ƒํ•˜๋ฉด ์ž๋ณธ์ฃผ์˜์  ์†Œ๋น„์˜ ์‚ถ์€ ํ•„์š”์™€ ์š•๊ตฌ ์‚ฌ์ด์˜ ๋ถˆ์ผ์น˜๋ฅผ ์ผ์œผํ‚ค๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค. ๋ฅดํŽ˜๋ธŒ๋ฅด๋Š” ์ด๋Ÿฐ ๋ถˆ์ผ์น˜๊ฐ€ ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ ๊ฐœ์ธ์˜ ์†Œ์™ธ๋ฅผ ์•ผ๊ธฐํ•œ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณด์•˜๋‹ค. ๊ทธ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋กœ ์†Œ์™ธ์˜ ์—ฐ์‡„๊ฐ€ ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜๊ณ  ๊ถ๊ทน์—” ๊ณต๋™์ฒด๊ฐ€ ๋ฌด๋„ˆ์ง€๊ฒŒ ๋  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ๋„์‹œ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ์—ญ์‚ฌ์™€ ์ž๋ณธ์— ์–ฝ๋งค์ธ ์‚ถ์˜ ๋ณธ์งˆ์„ ํšŒ๋ณตํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•˜์—ฌ ์„œ์—ดํ™”๋œ ์‚ฌํšŒ๊ตฌ์กฐ๋ฅผ ํ•ด์ฒดํ•จ์œผ๋กœ์จ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์ฃผ์˜๋ฅผ ๋„˜์–ด์„œ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. โ€œ์š”์ปจ๋Œ€ ์ž‘ํ’ˆ์œผ๋กœ์„œ ๋„์‹œ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์„ ์ „์œ ํ•˜๊ณ , ๋„์‹œ์˜ ์ •์น˜์— ์ฐธ์—ฌํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ, ์ด๊ฒƒ์ด ๋„์‹œ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๋งํ•˜๋Š” ๊ทผ์›์  ์š”๊ตฌ๋“ค์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค.โ€ ์–ด์ฉŒ๋ฉด ์ง€๋‚˜์น˜๊ฒŒ ์ด์ƒ์ ์ธ ์‚ฌ์ƒ์ด์ง€๋งŒ, ๋„์‹œ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ณง ์‹œ๋ฏผ์˜ ๊ถŒ๋ฆฌ์™€ ๋งˆ์ฐฌ๊ฐ€์ง€๋ž€ ์ ์„ ์ฃผ๋ชฉํ•ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์„ธ๊ณ„๊ฐ€ ๋„์‹œ๋ฅผ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์œผ๋กœ ํ˜•์„ฑ๋œ ์ด ์‹œ๋Œ€์— ๋„์‹œ๋ฅผ ๊ณ ์ž‘ ๋ถ€์˜ ํš๋“๊ณผ ๊ฒฝ์Ÿ์—์„œ์˜ ์šฐ์œ„๋ฅผ ๋‹คํˆฌ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฑด, ๋„์‹œ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์˜ˆ์˜๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์žฅ์•ˆํ‰์„ ๊ธฐ๋กํ•˜๋Š” ํ–‰์œ„๋„ ์˜ˆ์ˆ ์  ์ด๋… ์ด์ „์— ์‚ถ์˜ ํ•œ ํ˜•ํƒœ์ด์ž, ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆํ‹ฐ์˜ ์‹œ๊ณต๊ฐ„์„ ์˜ค๋กฏ์ด ๋‹ด์•„๋‚ผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ํ•˜๋‚˜์˜ ๊ธฐํšŒ์ผ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.





Arstist Statement: Archive: Machines, Cars, and the City


Every city undergoes changes. Creation and extinction are an inevitable destiny of every city; the problem is when they change too rapidly or disappear too soon. I fear that Janganpyeong, a place that has served as a mecca for used cars over the last 40 years, might disappear without a trace. I have documented scenes of Janganpyeong I came across by chance with the help of the Seoul Metropolitan Government.

The used car dealer district known as Janganpyeong was the birthplace of Koreaโ€™s used car market. One boss reminisced about his glorious past: customers with bags filled with money waited in line and he had dozens of employees. Taxidermied like the gold medal framed in his office, his reminiscences describe the glory of the past. The tout who used to raise his voice and the middle aged woman who works at the basement food court are old now. Cats let out long yawns in a corner on the basement floor.

I walked along the used parts district. The first things I noticed were the used car parts. Covered in greasy crud, the massive auto parts resemble exposed body organs. Mechanics seem to be performing an operation on machines like doctors with a scalpel. Parts that have been fixed after the operation are piled up in the surrounding space like a stone pagoda.

Parcel delivery cars and motorcycles come and go. Boxes are heaped up here and there. Arabs and Africans who visit to import auto parts can also be seen. One of the buildings in this district has a striking courtyard that seems to hold the sky. The scene of name-brand apartment buildings encircling the car parts building like a folding screen appears quite compelling. The reality is somewhat unpalatable: apartment residents often file civil complaints because they think the auto parts district defiles the appearance of the streets and causes traffic jams.

Each region has a history which soaks it to the bone. For this reason, both the buildings and street scenes found in Janganpyeong can only be seen here. Fortunately, the memories the people of this region have accumulated over several decades are still here in their surroundings. It is important to keep an eye on how this district will transform under the upcoming urban improvement project.




Do you know Janganpyeong? By Jung Hyun (Art Criticism, Inha University Professor)



โ€œWhen it comes to Seoulโ€™s culture and history, we have only paid attention to the areas surrounding the cityโ€™s four main gates. Consequently, the histories of Yangju, Gwangju, Siheung, Yangcheon, Gimpo, and Goyang which are administratively incorporated into Seoul are often considered those of marginal regions. This situation precludes us from taking a view of Seoul as a whole.โ€
- Kim Si-deok, The Seoul Declaration, p.25

A Day in Janganpyeong

If you look up Janganpyeong on the Internet, an article pertaining to Seoulโ€™s urban regeneration areas comes up first. The gist of the article is that the regeneration project is attempting to transform Janganpyeong into a region where both residences and industries can thrive together. It claims that this can be achieved by improving its internal and external conditions which have been lagging the last 40 years ever since a Used Car Complex used car sales complex was completed in 1979. Most articles cover the establishment of an automotive industry multi-complex through which the used car market will be able to overcome its outdated physical infrastructures and environmental changes caused by the revitalization of online used car markets. I suddenly began to wonder about Janganpyeongโ€™s past. The area originated from Majanganbeol (๋งˆ์žฅ์•ˆ๋ฒŒ), a place that was home to a ranch for war horses and a horseback riding training site during the Joseon Dynasty period, and was known as Janghanpyeong (์žฅํ•œํ‰) or Janghanbeol (์žฅํ•œ๋ฒŒ). During the period of enlightenment, Janganpyeong was reclaimed as agricultural land so as to prevent flooding of Jungrangcheon Stream. After the land readjustment project of 1975, Jangan-dong was newly established through an integration of parts of Junggok-dong, Neung-dong, and Gunja-dong1) while Yongdu-dong was reshuffled into Yongdap-dong through an integration with part of Dapsimni-dong according to the ordinance of the Seoul Metropolitan Government. The Janganpyeong area was already designated as a semi-industrial district by the Seoul urban general plan in 1963 during the military regime. This means that Janganpyeong was forged by the Seoul urban industrial development plan and developed into what it is now.2)

I remember Jangan-dong as a village where a close older female friend lived during my college days. It is a region of Seoul that I had never visited before. Even though I had never been there, I might have picked up some second-hand knowledge of the area through novels, films, and dramas. It is obvious that this region is a culturally marginalized area since I had no memory of it at all. Thanks to photographer Jungho Jung who undertakes a photo archive prior to an urban improvement project, I had the chance to finally visit it. Jung has been photographing aspects of Janganpyeong for five months. It is impossible for me to discuss the past, present, and future of Janganpyeong as I only stayed there for half a day, guided by the photographer, but I can convey my impression of it. Composed of three groupings, the view of the Automotive Parts Complex as seen from the rooftop of a building was perhaps difficult for me to perceive as an industrial complex without his explanation. Its identity is marked by the automobile industry but the reality I faced was a cluster of various shops in a residential area. The used car industry of Janganpyeong consists of a used car sales market, an automobile repair service business, and an auto parts sales business. As is well known, the used car sales market is quite large in scale. The market is closely linked to the JAC (Janganpyeong Automotive Center) that sits in front of the subway entrance to Janganpyeong subway station. Such a facility hints that it is not merely a place for selling and buying used cars but is also in pursuit of cultural activities based on automobiles.

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1) See Jangan 1-dong Community Service Center homepage.
2) Kim Hie-Sik, โ€œConsideration on Formation and Transformation of the Seongsoo Industrial Complex in Seoul,โ€ The Journal of Seoul Studies (54), 2014, p.4.

The Used Car Complex is in the direction heading toward Jungrangcheon from Janganpyeong subway station. Auto repair shops are clustered together on the other side of the market. Created from the end of the repair shop street to the right is the auto parts distribution block. This area is not a colossal industrial complex to produce complete products; rather, it is here that cars are completely disassembled and each part is classified, repaired, sold, or exported. Opposite the block composed of small-scale repair shops and auto parts distributors are rows of houses and apartments which looks rather strange. This puzzled coexistence brings about a gap between Janganpyeongโ€™s identity as an auto industrial district and reality. According to Jung and those concerned with the urban regeneration project, the large-scale apartment complexes which are constantly being built around the Janganpyeong district cause conflict since residents complain about noise and pollution from the industrial and used car sales district. It seems there is some sort of complex conflict generated between deterred modernity (industry) and postmodernity (post-industry). Engendered through a collision between two different times, this conflict reveals the attitude urbanities usually have in using their cities. This demeanor derives from the value they pursue. The term value mentioned here is, in fact, their property prices. There is a limit to the value some industries centered on physical production can create in the middle of a city. A city is made up of various layers or levels of time. The strata engendered by different axes of time may well leave behind traces. At some point, consumer culture that romanticizes the past finds the urban industrial district nostalgically interesting and trendy. This โ€œinvolvementโ€ that changes deprived areas interestingly transforms some conventions pertaining to the city. It has the power to call people together to a depressed local commercial area. This fashion motivated by the media has a profound impact on solidifying the local areaโ€™s identity. All the same, we have to consider an opposite facet. How can we prevent the past from becoming the background of the presentโ€™s fiction as an urban areaโ€™s existential memories are hastily deleted, influenced by the fashion? In comparison, Janganpyeong seems to have slightly deviated from this fashion even though it is a semi-industrial district similar to Sewoon Shopping Mall. Of course, it is soon seized with this anxiety.

There is an essay about the rapid trends of Korea in Night Is a Tutor, a collection of essays by Hwang Hyun-san who passed away last year. His essay is about what everyone recognizes but is somewhat serious and profound in its meaning. Quoting some part of it, โ€œFurniture and electrical goods as essentials to a married life degenerate into waste to be treated with money before they were fully used. And we have no reminiscence of the apartment we lived in for 10 years. We cannot even remember its address. As we have no memories heaped up in our minds, we are living as if first existing in this world.โ€3) What is quoted above does fit with what often came to my mind when looking around Janganpyeong. What Hwang criticizes is not any fashion phenomenon. He feared that contemporary people live ephemeral lives that have no past or future, saying that โ€œHumans save time as well as wealth. A life with no memories is more sorrowful than a hand-to-life substance.4) What Hwang states in his essay oddly overlaps with the city that we inhabit and urbanities. It resembles the contradiction in reality where old things are constantly replaced with new things and its aspects appear strangely monolithic while seeking diversity. We cannot avoid noticing auto parts jam-packed into every corner of buildings when walking on the middle paths in Janganpyeong.

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3) Hwang Hyun-san, Night Is a Tutor, Nanda, 2016, p.191.
4) Hwang Hyun-san, Ibid., p.191.

These are scenes we find easily in Jungโ€™s photographs. These scenes do not refer to any particular time and lack any specificity that springs from rarity. Despite my lack of knowledge on internal-combustion engines, things with no memories stacked there were obviously neither artifacts nor antiques worth preservation. Both auto parts densely stacked up on a gate roof reminded me of scenes from Mad Max, a dystopian action film portraying the future when the civilizations on earth have collapsed.

It is still unclear what documenting these sights mean. Are these records to prove simply this place exists? Or, could those things be included in a chronicle of historic narratives to be evidence of Koreaโ€™s industrialization? The Seoul Government assures us it will carry out urban regeneration projects. Nevertheless, aspects of today will die out. Who on earth remembers there? Is it reversely worth remembering? If so, could it be preserved or researched only when its historical or archeological value is recognized? The philologist Kim Si-deok expresses his opposition to this view. He means the convention a few historians have asserted that the territory of Seoul is limited to the inside of its four main gates. His assertion is that historical research has to accept reality that the total population of Seoul is now no less than 10 million while very few people lived in Seoul in the past. He also puts emphasis on the fact that Koreaโ€™s conventional historical studies derived from โ€œlate Joseon centrism, the four main gates of Seoul centrism, royal family and aristocrat centrism, neo-Confucian centrism, and male centrism.โ€5) This is why I think we need the Janganpyeong Archive.

Records of Janganpyeong

Jungho Jung has a sharp interest in human desires, ideologies, and values like a reporter covering hot spots of the world. After working as a photographer, he has imagined a better future and conducted experiments to gain access to this. Last year he worked on his grandfatherโ€™s unknown past. It was a work tracing the life of his grandfather who was killed in battle during the Korean War without leaving any records or having any honor. In a broad sense, his work documenting Jaanganpyeong used car sale district takes the perspective of cutting across modern and contemporary Korean history. All the same, his Janganpyeong work is different from his previous practices. Jung has participated in the Janganpyeong Archive project as a citizen participant, not as an artist. Another factor is his self-imposed mission to represent the auto industrial complex as it is rather than depending on any critical stance as an artist. The work of taking photographs starts from the inevitable limit of representing four-dimensional space in two-dimensional space. The world captured on a flat surface unavoidably brings about an optical illusion. Due to this, an ordinary subject has abruptly changed into an object with a special story. We are perhaps attracted by this photographic hallmark. Strictly speaking, however, such photography fictionalizes reality. Jung's photographs for this project are flat to restrain photographyโ€™s dramatic effect. Janganpyeong photographs address the relation between photographic representation and ethics. Photography reproduces our reality but does not capture reality as it is. It brings about a dramatic transformation of objects through distortion, exaggeration, and elimination. The actual aspects of Janganpyeong are considerably different from those we have as preconceptions. First of all, Janganpyeong had a quiet atmosphere. Both its streets and shops remained entirely calm, probably influenced by the recent economic slowdown caused by decreased foreign trade.

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5) Kim Si-deok, The Seoul Declaration ? Philologist Kim Si-deokโ€™s Walking through Seoul, 2002-2018, Open Books, 2018, p.43.

It was a place without spectacle to catch the eyes. The used car sales market here was also the same. It was hard to get a new feeling from the varieties of used cars perfectly washed and aligned in rows and lines because it was already so familiar to me. Dealers barking deals on their cars in their typical way, signs and their fonts attached to commercial buildings, name brand apartment buildings standing tall like colossal fortresses, and the run-down traditional market appeared somewhat unrealistic. Jungโ€™s Janganpyeong photographs are largely divided into two categories: accumulated auto parts and the interior and exterior of Janganpyeong used car sales district. The first type of photographs Jung calls photographs of things are reminiscent of keywords such as scrap iron, machine parts, and recombination. Jung documents these things without projecting any private feelings. The second type takes a view of the interior and exterior of Janganpyeong buildings. The scenes of both row houses and apartments on the border of the market to be redeveloped and the scenes of car repair shops filled with auto parts that occupy a deserted street seem functional rather than romantic or immune to time. Hwang Hyun-san articulates that โ€œIf your life is unable to gain any consistency from veritable memories, you do not know why you have to live. If your life cannot bring about any significance from its inside, you may replace it with symbols produced outside of your life.โ€ (191) A large-scale industrial complex in Pohang, Ulsan or Changwon is separated from everyday life and exists as another city. Its identity at times appears equivocal as it is close to everyday life. Jung did not rashly symbolize Janganpyeongโ€™s identity. He also did not explicitly represent or portray its interior. His way perhaps represents veritable aesthetic value Janganpyeong has presently. The urban industrial complexes in Mullae, Seongsoo, Cheonggyecheon, and Janganpyeong do not mask their nature with visual symbols while trying to extend their outer scale only. Instead, Jung has captured gloomy, cold weather, machine part stacked up for survival, and the smell of oil stains in his photographs. His photographs are dark and gloomy in general because they were photographed during this winter season. His work of documenting something will last. His photographs will feature those living there and their stories. An archive today above all includes records of each individual or everyday life but it seems stylized at some sense. What matters is what receptacles are used to contain their voices, sensations, experiences, and memories.

Our Memories of the City

Every city is hard to define. Aspects in the city appear complicated and subtle since it has been forged through a repetition of innumerable conflicts, conciliations, caring and affection, and destruction and restoration that took place in the relations between nature and civilization. Organized with peopleโ€™s habits and natural phenomena between artificially created roads and buildings as the weft and the warp, a city is molded through a mixture of happenstance and intention. Seoul is the same. Often referred to as Seoul with a 600-year history, Seoul has constantly been expanding.6) After Koreaโ€™s emancipation from Japanese colonial rule, its urbanization can be seen as the result of massive construction projects. Some past things have been treated as historical articles to be kept while many other things have often been excluded or even destroyed. The past as part of history has consistently made an effect on not only the present but also the future. An ideology called history is one of the bases of a modern state, internalizing our consciousness of states, people, and communities. Thus, a city does not exist to gratify each individualโ€™s life but is forged by the relations human desires have with places, capital, society, or things of mixed ideologies.

6) Thus, Kim Si-deok calls present Seoul โ€œGreat Seoul.โ€

Humans seem to be the owners or founders of each city at a glance, but it has been motivated by a wide array of human desire and power. Accordingly, an ideology is a collection of very realistic, simultaneous notions, not merely an old concept. A 21st-century globalized city is a place where every value in the world is in a mixed state. A big city is nothing less than an enormous department store. Its roads have gradually become the stage for high-performance vehicles and its age-old places are clustered with stores and bistros differentiated from those in its main commercial districts. From now on, every place with a time-honored history is vanishing and its history and narratives are hidden behind the shadows cast by development. What we remember is only the value of capital and the atrocity of the market. Archive materials are not only for records. Jungโ€™s photographs are the first records for an archive: others will capture facets of Janganpyeong from various angles based on his records. The philosopher Henri Lefebvre has advocated the right to the city (Le Droit ? la ville). He proposed this idea because a life trapped in capitalistic consumption brings about a disagreement between need and desire. Lefebvre considered this disagreement to cause each individualโ€™s alienation. As a result, a chain of alienation takes place and a community will after all collapse. The right to the city is to overcome centrism by deconstructing hierarchical social structures for the purpose of recovering the nature of life occupied with history and capital. โ€œThe elemental requests the right to the city comments on are to appropriate urban space and to take part in urban politics.โ€7) Perhaps, the right to the city is overly ideal but we have to pay heed to the assertion that it is nothing less than a civil right. The world is primarily made up of innumerable cities in our era. It is not a proper to use a city only for acquiring wealth or gaining a competitive edge. The act of documenting Janganpyeong may be either a form of life that is more than any artistic ideology or serves as an opportunity to hold the space-time of modernity as it is.